API

The external (json/form) API is described here

Core

class flask_security.Security(app=None, datastore=None, register_blueprint=True, login_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.LoginForm'>, verify_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.VerifyForm'>, confirm_register_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.ConfirmRegisterForm'>, register_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.RegisterForm'>, forgot_password_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.ForgotPasswordForm'>, reset_password_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.ResetPasswordForm'>, change_password_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.ChangePasswordForm'>, send_confirmation_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.SendConfirmationForm'>, passwordless_login_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.PasswordlessLoginForm'>, two_factor_verify_code_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.TwoFactorVerifyCodeForm'>, two_factor_setup_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.TwoFactorSetupForm'>, two_factor_rescue_form=<class 'flask_security.forms.TwoFactorRescueForm'>, two_factor_select_form=<class 'flask_security.tf_plugin.TwoFactorSelectForm'>, mf_recovery_codes_form=<class 'flask_security.recovery_codes.MfRecoveryCodesForm'>, mf_recovery_form=<class 'flask_security.recovery_codes.MfRecoveryForm'>, us_signin_form=<class 'flask_security.unified_signin.UnifiedSigninForm'>, us_setup_form=<class 'flask_security.unified_signin.UnifiedSigninSetupForm'>, us_setup_validate_form=<class 'flask_security.unified_signin.UnifiedSigninSetupValidateForm'>, us_verify_form=<class 'flask_security.unified_signin.UnifiedVerifyForm'>, wan_register_form=<class 'flask_security.webauthn.WebAuthnRegisterForm'>, wan_register_response_form=<class 'flask_security.webauthn.WebAuthnRegisterResponseForm'>, wan_signin_form=<class 'flask_security.webauthn.WebAuthnSigninForm'>, wan_signin_response_form=<class 'flask_security.webauthn.WebAuthnSigninResponseForm'>, wan_delete_form=<class 'flask_security.webauthn.WebAuthnDeleteForm'>, wan_verify_form=<class 'flask_security.webauthn.WebAuthnVerifyForm'>, mail_util_cls=<class 'flask_security.mail_util.MailUtil'>, password_util_cls=<class 'flask_security.password_util.PasswordUtil'>, phone_util_cls=<class 'flask_security.phone_util.PhoneUtil'>, render_template=<function default_render_template>, totp_cls=<class 'flask_security.totp.Totp'>, username_util_cls=<class 'flask_security.username_util.UsernameUtil'>, webauthn_util_cls=<class 'flask_security.webauthn_util.WebauthnUtil'>, mf_recovery_codes_util_cls=<class 'flask_security.recovery_codes.MfRecoveryCodesUtil'>, oauth=None, **kwargs)

The Security class initializes the Flask-Security extension.

Parameters:
  • app (flask.Flask | None) – The application.

  • datastore (UserDatastore | None) – An instance of a user datastore.

  • register_blueprint (bool) – to register the Security blueprint or not.

  • login_form (t.Type[LoginForm]) – set form for the login view

  • verify_form (t.Type[VerifyForm]) – set form for re-authentication due to freshness check

  • register_form (t.Type[RegisterForm]) – set form for the register view when SECURITY_CONFIRMABLE is false

  • confirm_register_form (t.Type[ConfirmRegisterForm]) – set form for the register view when SECURITY_CONFIRMABLE is true

  • forgot_password_form (t.Type[ForgotPasswordForm]) – set form for the forgot password view

  • reset_password_form (t.Type[ResetPasswordForm]) – set form for the reset password view

  • change_password_form (t.Type[ChangePasswordForm]) – set form for the change password view

  • send_confirmation_form (t.Type[SendConfirmationForm]) – set form for the send confirmation view

  • passwordless_login_form (t.Type[PasswordlessLoginForm]) – set form for the passwordless login view

  • two_factor_setup_form (t.Type[TwoFactorSetupForm]) – set form for the 2FA setup view

  • two_factor_verify_code_form (t.Type[TwoFactorVerifyCodeForm]) – set form the the 2FA verify code view

  • two_factor_rescue_form (t.Type[TwoFactorRescueForm]) – set form for the 2FA rescue view

  • two_factor_select_form (t.Type[TwoFactorSelectForm]) – set form for selecting between active 2FA methods

  • mf_recovery_codes_form (t.Type[MfRecoveryCodesForm]) – set form for retrieving and setting recovery codes

  • mf_recovery_form (t.Type[MfRecoveryForm]) – set form for multi factor recovery

  • us_signin_form (t.Type[UnifiedSigninForm]) – set form for the unified sign in view

  • us_setup_form (t.Type[UnifiedSigninSetupForm]) – set form for the unified sign in setup view

  • us_setup_validate_form (t.Type[UnifiedSigninSetupValidateForm]) – set form for the unified sign in setup validate view

  • us_verify_form (t.Type[UnifiedVerifyForm]) – set form for re-authenticating due to freshness check

  • wan_register_form (t.Type[WebAuthnRegisterForm]) – set form for registering a webauthn security key

  • wan_register_response_form (t.Type[WebAuthnRegisterResponseForm]) – set form for registering a webauthn security key

  • wan_signin_form (t.Type[WebAuthnSigninForm]) – set form for authenticating with a webauthn security key

  • wan_signin_response_form (t.Type[WebAuthnSigninResponseForm]) – set form for authenticating with a webauthn

  • wan_delete_form (t.Type[WebAuthnDeleteForm]) – set form for deleting a webauthn security key

  • wan_verify_form (t.Type[WebAuthnVerifyForm]) – set form for using a webauthn key to verify authenticity

  • mail_util_cls (t.Type[MailUtil]) – Class to use for sending emails. Defaults to MailUtil

  • password_util_cls (t.Type[PasswordUtil]) – Class to use for password normalization/validation. Defaults to PasswordUtil

  • phone_util_cls (t.Type[PhoneUtil]) – Class to use for phone number utilities. Defaults to PhoneUtil

  • render_template (t.Callable[..., str]) – function to use to render templates. The default is Flask’s render_template() function.

  • totp_cls (t.Type[Totp]) – Class to use as TOTP factory. Defaults to Totp

  • username_util_cls (t.Type[UsernameUtil]) – Class to use for normalizing and validating usernames. Defaults to UsernameUtil

  • webauthn_util_cls (t.Type[WebauthnUtil]) – Class to use for customizing WebAuthn registration and signin. Defaults to WebauthnUtil

  • mf_recovery_codes_util_cls (t.Type[MfRecoveryCodesUtil]) – Class for generating, checking, encrypting and decrypting recovery codes. Defaults to MfRecoveryCodesUtil

  • oauth (OAuth | None) – An instance of authlib.integrations.flask_client.OAuth. If not set, Flask-Security will create one.

  • kwargs (t.Any) –

Tip

Be sure that all your configuration values have been set PRIOR to instantiating this class. Some configuration values are set as attributes on the instance and therefore won’t track any changes.

New in version 3.4.0: verify_form added as part of freshness/re-authentication

New in version 3.4.0: us_signin_form, us_setup_form, us_setup_validate_form, and us_verify_form added as part of the Unified Sign In feature.

New in version 3.4.0: totp_cls added to enable applications to implement replay protection - see Totp.

New in version 3.4.0: phone_util_cls added to allow different phone number parsing implementations - see PhoneUtil

New in version 4.0.0: mail_util_cls added to isolate mailing handling. password_util_cls added to encapsulate password validation/normalization.

New in version 4.1.0: username_util_cls added to encapsulate username handling.

New in version 5.0.0: wan_register_form, wan_register_response_form, webauthn_signin_form, wan_signin_response_form, webauthn_delete_form, webauthn_verify_form, tf_select_form.

New in version 5.0.0: WebauthnUtil class.

New in version 5.0.0: Added support for multi-factor recovery codes mf_recovery_codes_form, mf_recovery_form.

New in version 5.1.0: mf_recovery_codes_util_cls, oauth

Deprecated since version 4.0.0: send_mail and send_mail_task. Replaced with mail_util_cls. two_factor_verify_password_form removed. password_validator removed in favor of the new password_util_cls.

Deprecated since version 5.0.0: Passing in a LoginManager instance. Removed in 5.1.0

Deprecated since version 5.0.0: json_encoder_cls is no longer honored since Flask 2.2 has deprecated it.

Deprecated since version 5.3.1: Passing in an anonymous_user class. Removed in 5.4.0

init_app(app, datastore=None, register_blueprint=None, **kwargs)

Initializes the Flask-Security extension for the specified application and datastore implementation.

Parameters:
  • app (flask.Flask) – The application.

  • datastore (UserDatastore | None) – An instance of a user datastore.

  • register_blueprint (bool | None) – to register the Security blueprint or not.

  • kwargs (t.Any) – Can be used to override/initialize any of the form names, flags, and utility classes. All other kwargs are ignored.

Return type:

None

If you create the Security instance with both an ‘app’ and ‘datastore’ you shouldn’t call this - it will be called as part of the constructor.

reauthn_handler(cb)

Callback when endpoint required a fresh authentication. This is called by auth_required().

Parameters:

cb (t.Callable[[timedelta, timedelta], ResponseValue]) –

Callback function with signature (within, grace)

within:

timedelta that endpoint required fresh authentication within.

grace:

timedelta of grace period that endpoint allowed.

Return type:

None

Should return a Response or something Flask can create a Response from. Can raise an exception if it is handled as part of flask.errorhandler(<exception>)

The default implementation will return a 401 response if the request was JSON, otherwise will redirect to SECURITY_US_VERIFY_URL (if SECURITY_UNIFIED_SIGNIN is enabled) else to SECURITY_VERIFY_URL. If both of those are None it sends an abort(401).

See flask_security.auth_required() for details about freshness checking.

New in version 3.4.0.

render_json(cb)

Callback to render response payload as JSON.

Parameters:

cb (t.Callable[[dict[str, t.Any], int, dict[str, str] | None, User | None], ResponseValue]) –

Callback function with signature (payload, code, headers=None, user=None)

payload:

A dict. Please see the formal API spec for details.

code:

Http status code

headers:

Headers object

user:

the UserDatastore object (or None). Note that this is usually the same as current_user - but not always.

Return type:

None

The default implementation simply returns:

headers["Content-Type"] = "application/json"
payload = dict(meta=dict(code=code), response=payload)
return make_response(jsonify(payload), code, headers)

Important

Note that this has nothing to do with how the response is serialized. That is controlled by Flask and starting with Flask 2.2 that is managed by sub-classing Flask::JSONProvider. Flask-Security does this to add serializing lazy-strings.

This can be used by applications to unify all their JSON API responses. This is called in a request context and should return a Response or something Flask can create a Response from.

New in version 3.3.0.

set_form_info(name, form_info)

Set form instantiation info.

Parameters:
Return type:

None

Advanced

Forms (which are all FlaskForms) are instantiated at the start of each request. Normally this is done as part of a view by simply calling the form class constructor - Flask-WTForms handles filling it in from various request attributes.

The form classes themselves can be extended (e.g. to add or change fields) and the derived class can be set at Security constructor time, init_app time, or using this method.

This default implementation is suitable for most applications.

Some application might want to control the instantiation of forms, for example to be able to inject additional validation services. Using this method, a callable instantiator can be set that Flask-Security will call to return a properly instantiated form.

Danger

Do not perform any validation as part of instantiation - many views have a bunch of logic PRIOR to calling the form validator.

New in version 5.1.0.

unauthn_handler(cb)

Callback for failed authentication. This is called by auth_required(), auth_token_required() or http_auth_required() if authentication fails. It is also called from Flask-Login’s @login_required decorator.

Parameters:

cb (t.Callable[[list[str], dict[str, str] | None], ResponseValue]) –

Callback function with signature (mechanisms=None, headers=None)

mechanisms:

List of which authentication mechanisms were tried

headers:

dict of headers to return

Return type:

None

Should return a Response or something Flask can create a Response from. Can raise an exception if it is handled as part of flask.errorhandler(<exception>)

The default implementation will return a 401 response if the request was JSON, otherwise will redirect to the login view.

New in version 3.3.0.

Changed in version 5.4.0: No longer calls Flask-Login and has complete logic built-in.

unauthz_handler(cb)

Callback for failed authorization. This is called by the roles_required(), roles_accepted(), permissions_required(), or permissions_accepted() if a role or permission is missing.

Parameters:

cb (t.Callable[[str, list[str] | None], ResponseValue]) –

Callback function with signature (func, params)

func_name:

the decorator function name (e.g. ‘roles_required’)

params:

list of what (if any) was passed to the decorator.

Return type:

None

Should return a Response or something Flask can create a Response from. Can raise an exception if it is handled as part of flask.errorhandler(<exception>)

With the passed parameters the application could deliver a concise error message.

New in version 3.3.0.

Changed in version 5.1.0: Pass in the function name, not the function!

want_json(fn)

Function that returns True if response should be JSON (based on the request)

Parameters:

fn (t.Callable[[flask.Request], bool]) –

Function with the following signature (request)

request:

Werkzueg/Flask request

Return type:

None

The default implementation returns True if either the Content-Type is “application/json” or the best Accept header value is “application/json”.

New in version 3.3.0.

flask_security.current_user

A proxy for the current user.

Protecting Views

All Flask-Security decorators are compatible with Flask’s async implementation. This is accomplished by wrapping function calls with flask.ensure_async(). Please see Flask async.

flask_security.anonymous_user_required(f)

Decorator which requires that caller NOT be logged in. If a logged in user accesses an endpoint protected with this decorator they will be redirected to the SECURITY_POST_LOGIN_VIEW. If the caller requests a JSON response, a 400 will be returned.

Changed in version 3.3.0: Support for JSON response was added.

Parameters:

f (Callable[[...], Any]) –

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any]

flask_security.http_auth_required(realm)

Decorator that protects endpoints using Basic HTTP authentication.

Parameters:

realm (Any) – optional realm name

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any]

If authentication fails, then a 401 with the ‘WWW-Authenticate’ header set will be returned.

Once authenticated, if so configured, CSRF protection will be tested.

flask_security.auth_token_required(fn)

Decorator that protects endpoints using token authentication. The token should be added to the request by the client by using a query string variable with a name equal to the configuration value of SECURITY_TOKEN_AUTHENTICATION_KEY or in a request header named that of the configuration value of SECURITY_TOKEN_AUTHENTICATION_HEADER

Once authenticated, if so configured, CSRF protection will be tested.

Parameters:

fn (Callable[[...], Any]) –

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any]

flask_security.auth_required(*auth_methods, within=-1, grace=None)

Decorator that protects endpoints through multiple mechanisms. Example:

@app.route('/dashboard')
@auth_required('token', 'session')
def dashboard():
    return 'Dashboard'
Parameters:
  • auth_methods (str | Callable[[], list[str]] | None) – Specified mechanisms (token, basic, session). If not specified then all current available mechanisms (except “basic”) will be tried. A callable can also be passed (useful if you need app/request context). The callable must return a list.

  • within (int | float | Callable[[], timedelta]) –

    Add ‘freshness’ check to authentication. Is either an int specifying # of minutes, or a callable that returns a timedelta. For timedeltas, timedelta.total_seconds() is used for the calculations:

    • If > 0, then the caller must have authenticated within the time specified (as measured using the session cookie).

    • If 0 and not within the grace period (see below) the caller will always be redirected to re-authenticate.

    • If < 0 (the default) no freshness check is performed.

    Note that Basic Auth, by definition, is always ‘fresh’ and will never result in a redirect/error.

  • grace (int | float | Callable[[], timedelta] | None) – Add a grace period for freshness checks. As above, either an int or a callable returning a timedelta. If not specified then SECURITY_FRESHNESS_GRACE_PERIOD is used. The grace period allows callers to complete the required operations w/o being prompted again. See flask_security.check_and_update_authn_fresh() for details.

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any]

Note that regardless of order specified - they will be tried in the following order: token, session, basic.

The first mechanism that succeeds is used, following that, depending on configuration, CSRF protection will be tested.

On authentication failure Security.unauthn_handler() will be called.

As a side effect, upon successful authentication, the request global

fs_authn_via will be set to the method (“basic”, “token”, “session”)

Note

If “basic” is specified in addition to other methods, then if authentication fails, a 401 with the “WWW-Authenticate” header will be returned - rather than being redirected to the login view.

Changed in version 3.3.0: If auth_methods isn’t specified, then all will be tried. Authentication mechanisms will always be tried in order of token, session, basic regardless of how they are specified in the auth_methods parameter.

Changed in version 3.4.0: Added within and grace parameters to enforce a freshness check.

Changed in version 3.4.4: If auth_methods isn’t specified try all mechanisms EXCEPT basic.

Changed in version 4.0.0: auth_methods can be passed as a callable.

flask_security.roles_required(*roles)

Decorator which specifies that a user must have all the specified roles. Example:

@app.route('/dashboard')
@roles_required('admin', 'editor')
def dashboard():
    return 'Dashboard'

The current user must have both the admin role and editor role in order to view the page.

Parameters:

roles (str) – The required roles.

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any]

flask_security.roles_accepted(*roles)

Decorator which specifies that a user must have at least one of the specified roles. Example:

@app.route('/create_post')
@roles_accepted('editor', 'author')
def create_post():
    return 'Create Post'

The current user must have either the editor role or author role in order to view the page.

Parameters:

roles (str) – The possible roles.

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any]

flask_security.permissions_required(*fsperms)

Decorator which specifies that a user must have all the specified permissions. Example:

@app.route('/dashboard')
@permissions_required('admin-write', 'editor-write')
def dashboard():
    return 'Dashboard'

The current user must have BOTH permissions (via the roles it has) to view the page.

N.B. Don’t confuse these permissions with flask-principle Permission()!

Parameters:

fsperms (str) – The required permissions.

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any]

New in version 3.3.0.

flask_security.permissions_accepted(*fsperms)

Decorator which specifies that a user must have at least one of the specified permissions. Example:

@app.route('/create_post')
@permissions_accepted('editor-write', 'author-wrote')
def create_post():
    return 'Create Post'

The current user must have one of the permissions (via the roles it has) to view the page.

N.B. Don’t confuse these permissions with flask-principle Permission()!

Parameters:

fsperms (str) – The possible permissions.

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any]

New in version 3.3.0.

flask_security.unauth_csrf(fall_through=False)

Decorator for endpoints that don’t need authentication but do want CSRF checks (available via Header rather than just form). This is required when setting WTF_CSRF_CHECK_DEFAULT = False since in that case, without this decorator, the form validation will attempt to do the CSRF check, and that will fail since the csrf-token is in the header (for pure JSON requests).

This decorator does nothing unless Flask-WTF::CSRFProtect has been initialized.

This decorator does nothing if WTF_CSRF_ENABLED == False.

This decorator does nothing if the caller is authenticated.

This decorator will suppress CSRF if caller isn’t authenticated and has set the SECURITY_CSRF_IGNORE_UNAUTH_ENDPOINTS config variable to True.

New in version 3.3.0.

Changed in version 5.4.3: The fall_through parameter is now ignored. Add code to properly handle JSON errors.

Parameters:

fall_through (bool) –

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any]

flask_security.handle_csrf(method, json_response=False)

Invoke CSRF protection based on authentication method.

Usually this is called as part of a decorator, but if that isn’t appropriate, endpoint code can call this directly.

If CSRF protection is appropriate, this will call flask_wtf::protect() which will raise a CSRFError(BadRequest) on CSRF failure.

This routine does nothing if any of these are true:

  1. WTF_CSRF_ENABLED is set to False

  2. the Flask-WTF CSRF module hasn’t been initialized

  3. csrfProtect already checked and accepted the token

This means in the default config - CSRF is done as part of form validation not here. Only if the application calls CSRFProtect(app) will this method do anything. Furthermore - since this is called PRIOR to form instantiation if the request is JSON - it MUST send the csrf_token as a header.

If the passed in method is not in SECURITY_CSRF_PROTECT_MECHANISMS then in addition to no CSRF code being run, the flask_wtf request global ‘csrf_valid’ will be set so that downstream code knows to ignore any CSRF checks.

Returns None if all ok, returns a Response with JSON error if request wanted JSON - else re-raises the CSRFError exception.

New in version 3.3.0.

Changed in version 5.4.3: Use flask_wtf request global ‘csrf_valid’ instead of our own to handle application forms that aren’t derived from our forms.

Parameters:
  • method (str) –

  • json_response (bool) –

Return type:

ResponseValue | None

User Object Helpers

class flask_security.UserMixin

Mixin for User model definitions

augment_auth_token(tdata)

Override this to add/modify parts of the auth token. Additions to the dict can be made and verified in verify_auth_token()

New in version 5.4.0.

Parameters:

tdata (dict[str, Any]) –

Return type:

None

calc_username()

Come up with the best ‘username’ based on how the app is configured (via SECURITY_USER_IDENTITY_ATTRIBUTES). Returns the first non-null match (and converts to string). In theory this should NEVER be the empty string unless the user record isn’t actually valid.

New in version 3.4.0.

Return type:

str

get_auth_token()

Constructs the user’s authentication token.

Raises:

ValueError – If fs_token_uniquifier is part of model but not set.

Return type:

str | bytes

Optionally use a separate uniquifier so that changing password doesn’t invalidate auth tokens.

The returned value is securely signed using the remember_token_serializer

Changed in version 4.0.0: If user model has fs_token_uniquifier - use that (raise ValueError if not set). Otherwise, fallback to using fs_uniquifier.

Changed in version 5.4.0: New format - a dict with a version string. Add a token-based expiry option as well as a session id.

get_id()

Returns the user identification attribute. ‘Alternative-token’ for Flask-Login. This is always fs_uniquifier.

New in version 3.4.0.

Return type:

str

get_redirect_qparams(existing=None)

Return user info that will be added to redirect query params.

Parameters:

existing (dict[str, Any] | None) – A dict that will be updated.

Returns:

A dict whose keys will be query params and values will be query values.

Return type:

dict[str, Any]

The returned dict will always have an ‘identity’ key/value. If the User Model contains ‘email’, an ‘email’ key/value will be added. All keys provided in ‘existing’ will also be merged in.

New in version 3.2.0.

Changed in version 4.0.0: Add ‘identity’ using UserMixin.calc_username() - email is optional.

get_security_payload()

Serialize user object as response payload. Override this to return any/all of the user object in JSON responses. Return a dict.

Return type:

dict[str, Any]

has_permission(permission)

Returns True if user has this permission (via a role it has).

Parameters:

permission (str) – permission string name

Return type:

bool

New in version 3.3.0.

has_role(role)

Returns True if the user identifies with the specified role.

Parameters:

role (str | Role) – A role name or Role instance

Return type:

bool

property is_active: bool

Returns True if the user is active.

tf_send_security_token(method, **kwargs)

Generate and send the security code for two-factor.

Parameters:
  • method (str) – The method in which the code will be sent

  • kwargs (Any) – Opaque parameters that are subject to change at any time

Returns:

None if successful, error message if not.

Return type:

str | None

This is a wrapper around tf_send_security_token() that can be overridden to manage any errors.

New in version 3.4.0.

us_send_security_token(method, **kwargs)

Generate and send the security code for unified sign in.

Parameters:
  • method (str) – The method in which the code will be sent

  • kwargs (Any) – Opaque parameters that are subject to change at any time

Returns:

None if successful, error message if not.

Return type:

str | None

This is a wrapper around us_send_security_token() that can be overridden to manage any errors.

New in version 3.4.0.

verify_and_update_password(password)

Returns True if the password is valid for the specified user.

Additionally, the hashed password in the database is updated if the hashing algorithm happens to have changed.

N.B. you MUST call DB commit if you are using a session-based datastore (such as SqlAlchemy) since the user instance might have been altered (i.e. app.security.datastore.commit()). This is usually handled in the view.

Parameters:

password (str) – A plaintext password to verify

Return type:

bool

New in version 3.2.0.

verify_auth_token(tdata)

Override this to perform additional verification of contents of auth token. Prior to this being called the token has been validated (via signing) and has not expired (either with MAX_AGE or specific ‘exp’ value).

Parameters:

tdata (dict[str, Any]) – a dictionary just as in augment_auth_token()

Returns:

True if auth token represented by tdata is valid, False otherwise.

Return type:

bool

New in version 3.3.0.

Changed in version 5.4.0: Now receives a dictionary.

class flask_security.RoleMixin

Mixin for Role model definitions

get_permissions()

Return set of permissions associated with role.

New in version 3.3.0.

Return type:

set

class flask_security.WebAuthnMixin
get_user_mapping()

Return the filter needed by find_user() to get the user associated with this webauthn credential. Note that this probably has to be overridden using mongoengine.

New in version 5.0.0.

Return type:

dict[str, Any]

Datastores

class flask_security.UserDatastore(user_model, role_model, webauthn_model=None)

Abstracted user datastore.

Parameters:
  • user_model (t.Type[User]) – A user model class definition

  • role_model (t.Type[Role]) – A role model class definition

  • webauthn_model (t.Type[WebAuthn] | None) – A model used to store webauthn registrations

Important

For mutating operations, the user/role will be added to the datastore (by calling self.put(<object>). If the datastore is session based (such as for SQLAlchemyDatastore) it is up to caller to actually commit the transaction by calling datastore.commit().

Note

You must implement get_user_mapping in your WebAuthn model if your User model doesn’t have a primary key Column called ‘id’

activate_user(user)

Activates a specified user. Returns True if a change was made.

Parameters:

user (User) – The user to activate

Return type:

bool

add_permissions_to_role(role, permissions)

Add one or more permissions to role.

Parameters:
  • role (Role | str) – The role to modify. Can be a Role object or string role name

  • permissions (set | list | tuple | str) – a set, list, tuple or comma separated string.

Returns:

True if permissions added, False if role doesn’t exist.

Return type:

bool

Caller must commit to DB.

New in version 4.0.0.

add_role_to_user(user, role)

Adds a role to a user.

Parameters:
  • user (User) – The user to manipulate.

  • role (Role | str) – The role to add to the user. Can be a Role object or string role name

Returns:

True is role was added, False if role already existed.

Return type:

bool

create_role(**kwargs)

Creates and returns a new role from the given parameters. Supported params (depending on RoleModel):

Parameters:
  • name – Role name

  • permissions

    a list, set, tuple or comma separated string. These are user-defined strings that correspond to args used with @permissions_required()

    New in version 3.3.0.

  • kwargs (t.Any) –

Return type:

Role

create_user(**kwargs)

Creates and returns a new user from the given parameters.

Parameters:
  • email – required.

  • password – Hashed password.

  • roles – list of roles to be added to user. Can be Role objects or strings

  • kwargs (t.Any) –

Return type:

User

Any other element of the User data model may be supplied as well.

Note

No normalization is done on email - it is assumed the caller has already done that.

Best practice is:

try:
    enorm = app.security._mail_util.validate(email)
except ValueError:

Danger

Be aware that whatever password is passed in will be stored directly in the DB. Do NOT pass in a plaintext password! Best practice is to pass in hash_password(plaintext_password).

Furthermore, no validation nor normalization is done on the password (e.g for minimum length).

Best practice is:

pbad, pnorm = app.security._password_util.validate(password, True)

Look for pbad being None. Pass the normalized password pnorm to this method.

The new user’s active property will be set to True unless explicitly set to False in kwargs (e.g. active = False)

deactivate_user(user)

Deactivates a specified user. Returns True if a change was made.

This will immediately disallow access to all endpoints that require authentication either via session or tokens. The user will not be able to log in again.

Parameters:

user (User) – The user to deactivate

Return type:

bool

delete_user(user)

Deletes the specified user.

Parameters:

user (User) – The user to delete

Return type:

None

delete_webauthn(webauthn)
Parameters:

webauthn (WebAuthn) –

Return type:

None

find_or_create_role(name, **kwargs)

Returns a role matching the given name or creates it with any additionally provided parameters.

Parameters:
  • name (str) –

  • kwargs (t.Any) –

Return type:

Role

find_role(role)

Returns a role matching the provided name.

Parameters:

role (str) –

Return type:

Role | None

find_user(**kwargs)

Returns a user matching the provided parameters. Besides keyword arguments used to filter the results, ‘case_insensitive’ can be passed (defaults to False)

Parameters:

kwargs (t.Any) –

Return type:

User | None

find_webauthn(credential_id)

Returns a credential matching the id.

Parameters:

credential_id (bytes) –

Return type:

WebAuthn | None

remove_permissions_from_role(role, permissions)

Remove one or more permissions from a role.

Parameters:
  • role (Role | str) – The role to modify. Can be a Role object or string role name

  • permissions (set | list | tuple | str) – a set, list, tuple or a comma separated string.

Returns:

True if permissions removed, False if role doesn’t exist.

Return type:

bool

Caller must commit to DB.

New in version 4.0.0.

remove_role_from_user(user, role)

Removes a role from a user.

Parameters:
  • user (User) – The user to manipulate. Can be an User object or email

  • role (Role | str) – The role to remove from the user. Can be a Role object or string role name

Returns:

True if role was removed, False if role doesn’t exist or user didn’t have role.

Return type:

bool

reset_user_access(user)

Use this method to reset user authentication methods in the case of compromise. This will:

  • reset fs_uniquifier - which causes session cookie, remember cookie, auth tokens to be unusable

  • reset fs_token_uniquifier (if present) - cause auth tokens to be unusable

  • remove all unified signin TOTP secrets so those can’t be used

  • remove all two-factor secrets so those can’t be used

  • remove all registered webauthn credentials

  • remove all one-time recovery codes

  • will NOT affect password

Note that if using unified sign in and allow ‘email’ as a way to receive a code; this will also get reset. If the user registered w/o a password then they likely will have no way to authenticate.

Note - this method isn’t used directly by Flask-Security - it is provided as a helper for an application’s administrative needs.

Remember to call commit on DB if needed.

New in version 3.4.1.

Changed in version 5.0.0: Added webauthn and recovery codes reset.

Parameters:

user (User) –

Return type:

None

set_token_uniquifier(user, uniquifier=None)

Set user’s auth token identity key. This will immediately render outstanding auth tokens invalid.

Parameters:
  • user (User) – User to modify

  • uniquifier (str | None) – Unique value - if none then uuid.uuid4().hex is used

Return type:

None

This method is a no-op if the user model doesn’t contain the attribute fs_token_uniquifier

New in version 4.0.0.

set_uniquifier(user, uniquifier=None)

Set user’s Flask-Security identity key. This will immediately render outstanding auth tokens, session cookies and remember cookies invalid.

Parameters:
  • user (User) – User to modify

  • uniquifier (str | None) – Unique value - if none then uuid.uuid4().hex is used

Return type:

None

New in version 3.3.0.

tf_reset(user)

Disable two-factor auth for user.

Parameters:

user (User) –

Return type:

None

tf_set(user, primary_method, totp_secret=None, phone=None)

Set two-factor info into user record. This carefully only changes things if different.

If totp_secret isn’t provided - existing one won’t be changed. If phone isn’t provided, the existing phone number won’t be changed.

This could be called from an application to apiori setup a user for two factor without the user having to go through the setup process.

To get a totp_secret - use app.security._totp_factory.generate_totp_secret()

Parameters:
  • user (User) –

  • primary_method (str) –

  • totp_secret (str | None) –

  • phone (str | None) –

Return type:

None

toggle_active(user)

Toggles a user’s active status. Always returns True.

Parameters:

user (User) –

Return type:

bool

us_reset(user, method=None)

Disable unified sign in for user. This will disable authenticator app and SMS, and email. N.B. if user has no password they may not be able to authenticate at all.

New in version 3.4.1.

Changed in version 5.0.0: Added optional method argument to delete just a single method

Parameters:
  • user (User) –

  • method (str | None) –

Return type:

None

us_set(user, method, totp_secret=None, phone=None)

Set unified sign in info into user record.

If totp_secret isn’t provided - existing one won’t be changed. If phone isn’t provided, the existing phone number won’t be changed.

This could be called from an application to apiori setup a user for unified sign in without the user having to go through the setup process.

To get a totp_secret - use app.security._totp_factory.generate_totp_secret()

New in version 3.4.1.

Parameters:
  • user (User) –

  • method (str) –

  • totp_secret (str | None) –

  • phone (str | None) –

Return type:

None

webauthn_reset(user)

Reset access via webauthn credentials. This will DELETE all registered credentials. There doesn’t appear to be any reason to change the user’s fs_webauthn_user_handle.

Parameters:

user (User) –

Return type:

None

class flask_security.SQLAlchemyUserDatastore(db, user_model, role_model, webauthn_model=None)

Bases: SQLAlchemyDatastore, UserDatastore

A UserDatastore implementation that assumes the use of Flask-SQLAlchemy for datastore transactions.

Parameters:
class flask_security.SQLAlchemySessionUserDatastore(session, user_model, role_model, webauthn_model=None)

Bases: SQLAlchemyUserDatastore, SQLAlchemyDatastore

A UserDatastore implementation that directly uses SQLAlchemy’s session API.

Parameters:
class flask_security.MongoEngineUserDatastore(db, user_model, role_model, webauthn_model=None)

Bases: MongoEngineDatastore, UserDatastore

A UserDatastore implementation that assumes the use of MongoEngine for datastore transactions.

Parameters:
  • db (mongoengine.connection) –

  • user_model (t.Type[User]) – See Models.

  • role_model (t.Type[Role]) – See Models.

  • webauthn_model (t.Type[WebAuthn] | None) – See Models.

class flask_security.PeeweeUserDatastore(db, user_model, role_model, role_link, webauthn_model=None)

Bases: PeeweeDatastore, UserDatastore

A UserDatastore implementation that assumes the use of Peewee Flask utils for datastore transactions.

class flask_security.PonyUserDatastore(db, user_model, role_model, webauthn_model=None)

Bases: PonyDatastore, UserDatastore

A UserDatastore implementation that assumes the use of PonyORM for datastore transactions.

Code primarily from https://github.com/ET-CS but taken over after being abandoned.

Parameters:
  • db

  • user_model – See Models.

  • role_model – See Models.

  • webauthn_model – See Models.

class flask_security.datastore.SQLAlchemyDatastore(db)

Internal class implementing DataStore interface.

class flask_security.datastore.MongoEngineDatastore(db)

Internal class implementing DataStore interface.

class flask_security.datastore.PeeweeDatastore(db)

Internal class implementing DataStore interface.

class flask_security.datastore.PonyDatastore(db)

Internal class implementing DataStore interface.

class User

The User model. This must be provided by the application. See Models.

class Role

The Role model. This must be provided by the application. See Models.

class WebAuthn

The WebAuthn model. This must be provided by the application. See Models.

Packaged Models

class flask_security.models.fsqla.FsModels

Helper class for model mixins. This records the db (which is a Flask-SqlAlchemy object) for use in mixins.

classmethod set_db_info(appdb, user_table_name='user', role_table_name='role', webauthn_table_name='webauthn')

Initialize Model. This needs to be called after the DB object has been created (e.g. db = Sqlalchemy()).

Note

This should only be used if you are utilizing the fsqla data models. With your own models you would need similar but slightly difficult code.

Utils

flask_security.lookup_identity(identity)

Lookup identity in DB. This loops through, in order, SECURITY_USER_IDENTITY_ATTRIBUTES, and first calls the mapper function to validate/normalize. Then the db.find_user is called on the specified user model attribute.

flask_security.login_user(user, remember=None, authn_via=None)

Perform the login routine.

If SECURITY_TRACKABLE is used, make sure you commit changes after this request (i.e. app.security.datastore.commit()).

Parameters:
  • user (User) – The user to login

  • remember (bool | None) – Flag specifying if the remember cookie should be set. If None use value of SECURITY_DEFAULT_REMEMBER_ME

  • authn_via (list[str] | None) – A list of strings denoting which mechanism(s) the user authenticated with. These should be one or more of [“password”, “sms”, “authenticator”, “email”] or other ‘auto-login’ mechanisms.

Returns:

True if user successfully logged in.

Return type:

bool

flask_security.logout_user()

Logs out the current user.

This will also clean up the remember me cookie if it exists.

This sends an identity_changed signal to note that the current identity is now the AnonymousIdentity

Return type:

None

flask_security.check_and_update_authn_fresh(within, grace, method=None)

Check if user authenticated within specified time and update grace period.

Parameters:
  • within (timedelta) – A timedelta specifying the maximum time in the past that the caller authenticated that is still considered ‘fresh’.

  • grace (timedelta) – A timedelta that, if the current session is considered ‘fresh’ will set a grace period for which freshness won’t be checked. The intent here is that the caller shouldn’t get part-way though a set of operations and suddenly be required to authenticate again.

  • method (str | None) – Optional - if set and == “basic” then will always return True. (since basic-auth sends username/password on every request)

Return type:

bool

If within.total_seconds() is negative, will always return True (always ‘fresh’). This effectively just disables this entire mechanism.

If “fs_gexp” is in the session and the current timestamp is less than that, return True and extend grace time (i.e. set fs_gexp to current time + grace).

If not within the grace period, and within.total_seconds() is 0, return False (not fresh).

Be aware that for this to work, sessions and therefore session cookies must be functioning and being sent as part of the request. If the required state isn’t in the session cookie then return False (not ‘fresh’).

Warning

Be sure the caller is already authenticated PRIOR to calling this method.

New in version 3.4.0.

Changed in version 4.0.0: Added method parameter.

flask_security.get_hmac(password)

Returns a Base64 encoded HMAC+SHA512 of the password signed with the salt specified by SECURITY_PASSWORD_SALT.

Parameters:

password (str | bytes) – The password to sign

Return type:

bytes

flask_security.get_request_attr(name)

Retrieve a request local attribute.

Current public attributes are:

fs_authn_via

will be set to the authentication mechanism (session, token, basic) that the current request was authenticated with.

Returns None if attribute doesn’t exist.

New in version 4.0.0.

Changed in version 4.1.5: Use ‘g’ rather than request_ctx stack which is going away post Flask 2.2

Parameters:

name (str) –

Return type:

Any

flask_security.verify_password(password, password_hash)

Returns True if the password matches the supplied hash.

Parameters:
  • password (str | bytes) – A plaintext password to verify

  • password_hash (str | bytes) – The expected hash value of the password (usually from your database)

Return type:

bool

Note

Make sure that the password passed in has already been normalized.

flask_security.verify_and_update_password(password, user)

Returns True if the password is valid for the specified user.

Additionally, the hashed password in the database is updated if the hashing algorithm happens to have changed.

N.B. you MUST call DB commit if you are using a session-based datastore (such as SqlAlchemy) since the user instance might have been altered (i.e. app.security.datastore.commit()). This is usually handled in the view.

Parameters:
  • password (str | bytes) – A plaintext password to verify

  • user (User) – The user to verify against

Return type:

bool

Tip

This should not be called directly - rather use UserMixin.verify_and_update_password()

flask_security.hash_password(password)

Hash the specified plaintext password.

Unless the hash algorithm (as specified by SECURITY_PASSWORD_HASH) is listed in the configuration variable SECURITY_PASSWORD_SINGLE_HASH, perform a double hash - first create an HMAC from the plaintext password and the value of SECURITY_PASSWORD_SALT, then use the configured hashing algorithm. This satisfies OWASP/ASVS section 2.4.5: ‘provide additional iteration of a key derivation’.

New in version 2.0.2.

Parameters:

password (str | bytes) – The plaintext password to hash

Return type:

str

flask_security.admin_change_password(user, new_passwd, notify=True)

Administratively change a user’s password. Note that this will immediately render the user’s existing sessions (and possibly authentication tokens) invalid.

It is up to the caller to inform the user of their new password by some out-of-band means.

Parameters:
  • user (User) – The user object to change

  • new_passwd (str) – The new plain-text password to assign to the user.

  • notify (bool) – If True and SECURITY_SEND_PASSWORD_CHANGE_EMAIL is True send the ‘change_notice’ email to the user.

Return type:

None

flask_security.uia_phone_mapper(identity)

Used to match identity as a phone number. This is a simple proxy to PhoneUtil

See SECURITY_USER_IDENTITY_ATTRIBUTES.

New in version 3.4.0.

Parameters:

identity (str) –

Return type:

str | None

flask_security.uia_email_mapper(identity)

Used to match identity as an email.

Returns:

Normalized email or None if not valid email.

Parameters:

identity (str) –

Return type:

str | None

See SECURITY_USER_IDENTITY_ATTRIBUTES.

New in version 3.4.0.

flask_security.uia_username_mapper(identity)

Used to match identity as a username. This is a simple proxy to UsernameUtil

See SECURITY_USER_IDENTITY_ATTRIBUTES.

New in version 4.1.0.

Parameters:

identity (str) –

Return type:

str | None

flask_security.url_for_security(endpoint, **values)

Return a URL for the security blueprint

Parameters:
  • endpoint (str) – the endpoint of the URL (name of the function)

  • values (Any) – the variable arguments of the URL rule

  • _external – if set to True, an absolute URL is generated. Server address can be changed via SERVER_NAME configuration variable which defaults to localhost.

  • _anchor – if provided this is added as anchor to the URL.

  • _method – if provided this explicitly specifies an HTTP method.

Return type:

str

flask_security.send_mail(subject, recipient, template, **context)

Send an email.

Parameters:
  • subject – Email subject

  • recipient – Email recipient

  • template – The name of the email template

  • context – The context to render the template with

This formats the email and passes it off to MailUtil to actually send the message.

flask_security.check_and_get_token_status(token, serializer_name, within)

Get the status of a token and return data.

Parameters:
  • token (str) – The token to check

  • serializer_name (str) – The name of the serializer. Can be one of the following: confirm, login, reset, us_setup remember, two_factor_validity, wan

  • within (timedelta) – max age - passed as a timedelta

Returns:

a tuple of (expired, invalid, data)

Return type:

tuple[bool, bool, Any]

New in version 3.4.0.

flask_security.get_url(endpoint_or_url, qparams=None)

Returns a URL if a valid endpoint is found. Otherwise, returns the provided value.

Warning

If an endpoint ISN’T provided, then it is assumed that the URL is external to Flask and if the spa configuration REDIRECT_HOST is set will redirect to that host. This could be an issue in development.

Parameters:
  • endpoint_or_url (str) – The endpoint name or URL to default to

  • qparams (dict[str, str] | None) – additional query params to add to end of url

Returns:

URL

Return type:

str

flask_security.password_length_validator(password)

Test password for length.

Parameters:

password (str) – Plain text password to check

Returns:

None if password conforms to length requirements, a list of error/suggestions if not.

Return type:

list[str] | None

New in version 3.4.0.

flask_security.password_complexity_validator(password, is_register, **kwargs)

Test password for complexity.

Currently just supports ‘zxcvbn’.

Parameters:
  • password (str) – Plain text password to check

  • is_register (bool) – if True then kwargs are arbitrary additional info. (e.g. info from a registration form). If False, must be a SINGLE key “user” that corresponds to the current_user. All string values will be extracted and sent to the complexity checker.

  • kwargs (Any) –

Returns:

None if password is complex enough, a list of error/suggestions if not. Be aware that zxcvbn does not (easily) provide a way to localize messages.

Return type:

list[str] | None

New in version 3.4.0.

flask_security.password_breached_validator(password)

Check if password on breached list. Does nothing unless SECURITY_PASSWORD_CHECK_BREACHED is set. If password is found on the breached list, return an error if the count is greater than or equal to SECURITY_PASSWORD_BREACHED_COUNT. Uses pwned().

Parameters:

password (str) – Plain text password to check

Returns:

None if password passes breached tests, else a list of error messages.

Return type:

list[str] | None

New in version 3.4.0.

flask_security.pwned(password)

Check password against pwnedpasswords API using k-Anonymity. https://haveibeenpwned.com/API/v3

Returns:

Count of password in DB (0 means hasn’t been compromised)

Parameters:

password (str) –

Return type:

int

Can raise HTTPError

New in version 3.4.0.

flask_security.unique_identity_attribute(form, field)

A validator that checks the field data against all configured SECURITY_USER_IDENTITY_ATTRIBUTES. This can be used as part of registration.

Be aware that the “mapper” function likely also normalizes the input in addition to validating it.

Parameters:
  • form

  • field

Returns:

Nothing; if field data corresponds to an existing User, ValidationError is raised.

flask_security.us_send_security_token(user, method, totp_secret, phone_number, send_magic_link=False)

Generate and send the security code.

Parameters:
  • user – The user to send the code to

  • method – The method in which the code will be sent

  • totp_secret – the unique shared secret of the user

  • phone_number – If ‘sms’ phone number to send to

  • send_magic_link – If true a magic link that can be clicked on will be sent. This shouldn’t be sent during a setup.

There is no return value - it is assumed that exceptions are thrown by underlying methods that callers can catch.

Flask-Security code should NOT call this directly - call UserMixin.us_send_security_token()

New in version 3.4.0.

flask_security.tf_send_security_token(user, method, totp_secret, phone_number)

Sends the security token via email/sms for the specified user.

Parameters:
  • user – The user to send the code to

  • method – The method in which the code will be sent (‘email’ or ‘sms’, or ‘authenticator’) at the moment

  • totp_secret – a unique shared secret of the user

  • phone_number – If ‘sms’ phone number to send to

There is no return value - it is assumed that exceptions are thrown by underlying methods that callers can catch.

Flask-Security code should NOT call this directly - call UserMixin.tf_send_security_token()

class flask_security.AsaList(*args, **kwargs)

SQL-like DBs don’t have a List type - so do that here by converting to a comma separate string. For SQLAlchemy-based datastores, this can be used as:

Column(MutableList.as_mutable(AsaList()), nullable=True)
Parameters:
  • args (Any) –

  • kwargs (Any) –

class flask_security.SmsSenderBaseClass
abstract send_sms(from_number, to_number, msg)

Abstract method for sending sms messages

New in version 3.2.0.

Parameters:
  • from_number (str) –

  • to_number (str) –

  • msg (str) –

Return type:

None

class flask_security.SmsSenderFactory
classmethod createSender(name, *args, **kwargs)

Initialize an SMS sender.

Parameters:

name – Name as registered in SmsSenderFactory:senders (e.g. ‘Twilio’)

New in version 3.2.0.

class OauthCbType[oauth: OAuth, token: t.Any]

This callback is called when the oauth redirect happens. It must take the response from the provider and return a tuple of <user_model_field_name, value> - which will be used to look up the user in the datastore.

class flask_security.OAuthGlue(app, oauthapp=None)

Provide the necessary glue between the Flask-Security login process and authlib oauth client code.

There are some builtin providers which can be used or not - configured via SECURITY_OAUTH_BUILTIN_PROVIDERS. Any other provider can be registered using register_provider_ext().

See Flask OAuth Client

New in version 5.1.0.

Changed in version 5.4.0: Added register_provider_ext which allows applications more control to manage new providers (such as extended error handling).

Parameters:
register_provider(name, registration_info, fetch_identity_cb)

Add a provider to the list.

Parameters:
  • name (str) – Name of provider. This is used as part of the SECURITY_OAUTH_START_URL.

  • registration_info (dict[str, t.Any] | None) – Sent directly to authlib. Set this to None if you already have registered the provider directly with OAuth.

  • fetch_identity_cb (OauthCbType) – This callback is called when the oauth redirect happens. It must take the response from the provider and return a tuple of <user_model_field_name, value> - which will be used to look up the user in the datastore.

Return type:

None

The provider can be registered with OAuth here or already be done by the application. If you register directly with OAuth make sure to use the same name.

Deprecated since version 5.4.0: Use register_provider_ext() instead.

register_provider_ext(provider)

Register a provider via an instance of subclass. This is the new way - to provide more control for applications

The authlib provider can be registered here (by calling Oauth) or already be done by the application. If you register directly with OAuth make sure to use the same name when instantiating the class.

Parameters:

provider (FsOAuthProvider) –

Return type:

None

class flask_security.FsOAuthProvider(name, registration_info=None, fetch_identity_cb=None)

Subclass this or instantiate to add new oauth providers.

Subclassing allows for customizing additional aspects of the oauth flow in particular - a custom error path for oauth flow state mismatches and other errors thrown by authlib.

Call security.oauthglue.register_provider_ext(myproviderclass(“myprovider”))

Parameters:
  • name (str) – a name for provider - must match what was passed if this is already registered with Oauth.

  • registration_info (dict[str, t.Any] | None) – This dict is passed directly to Oauth as part of registration - not needed if provider already registered with Oauth

  • fetch_identity_cb (OauthCbType | None) – Call back from response to oauth flow.

authlib_config()

Return dict with authlib configuration. This is called as part of provider registration.

Return type:

dict[str, Any]

fetch_identity_cb(oauth, token)

This callback is called when the oauth redirect happens. It must take the response from the provider and return a tuple of <user_model_field_name, value> - which will be used to look up the user in the datastore.

Parameters:
  • oauth (OAuth) –

  • token (t.Any) –

Return type:

tuple[str, t.Any]

oauth_response_failure(e)

Called if authlib authorize_access_token throws an error.

N.B. flashing doesn’t seem to work in some cases - if the session cookie has samesite=’strict’ and it is the first registration.

Parameters:

e (OAuthError) –

Return type:

ResponseValue

Extendable Classes

Each of the following classes can be extended and passed in as part of Security() instantiation.

class flask_security.PhoneUtil(app)

Provide parsing and validation for user inputted phone numbers. Subclass this to use a different underlying phone number parsing library.

To provide your own implementation, pass in the class as phone_util_cls at init time. Your class will be instantiated once as part of Flask-Security initialization.

New in version 3.4.0.

Changed in version 4.0.0: __init__ takes app argument, and is instantiated at Flask-Security initialization time rather than at first request.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) –

__init__(app)

Instantiate class.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) – The Flask application being initialized.

get_canonical_form(input_data)

Validate and return a canonical form to be stored in DB and compared against. Returns None if input isn’t a valid phone number.

Parameters:

input_data (str) –

Return type:

str | None

validate_phone_number(input_data)

Return None if a valid phone number else the PHONE_INVALID error message.

Parameters:

input_data (str) –

Return type:

str | None

class flask_security.MailUtil(app)

Utility class providing methods for validating, normalizing and sending emails.

This default class uses the email_validator package to handle validation and normalization, and the flask_mailman package (if initialized) to send emails.

To provide your own implementation, pass in the class as mail_util_cls at init time. Your class will be instantiated once as part of app initialization.

New in version 4.0.0.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) –

__init__(app)

Instantiate class.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) – The Flask application being initialized.

normalize(email)

Given an input email - return a normalized version or raise EmailValidateException if field value isn’t syntactically valid.

This is called by forms that use email as an identity to be looked up.

Must be called in app context and uses SECURITY_EMAIL_VALIDATOR_ARGS config variable to pass any relevant arguments to email_validator.validate_email() method.

This defaults to NOT checking for deliverability (i.e. DNS checks).

Parameters:

email (str) –

Return type:

str

send_mail(template, subject, recipient, sender, body, html, **kwargs)

Send an email via the Flask-Mailman or Flask-Mail or other mail extension.

Parameters:
  • template (str) – the Template name. The message has already been rendered however this might be useful to differentiate why the email is being sent.

  • subject (str) – Email subject

  • recipient (str) – Email recipient

  • sender (str | tuple) – who to send email as (see SECURITY_EMAIL_SENDER)

  • body (str) – the rendered body (text)

  • html (str | None) – the rendered body (html)

  • kwargs (Any) – the entire context

Return type:

None

It is possible that sender is a lazy_string for localization (unlikely but..) so we cast to str() here to force localization.

validate(email)

Validate the given email. If valid, the normalized version is returned. This is used by forms/views that require an email that likely can have an actual email sent to it.

Must be called in app context and uses SECURITY_EMAIL_VALIDATOR_ARGS config variable to pass any relevant arguments to email_validator.validate_email() method.

EmailValidationException is thrown on invalid email.

Parameters:

email (str) –

Return type:

str

class flask_security.EmailValidateException(message)

This is raised for any email validation errors. This can be used by custom MailUtil implementations to provide custom error messages.

Parameters:

message (str) –

class flask_security.PasswordUtil(app)

Utility class providing methods for validating and normalizing passwords.

To provide your own implementation, pass in the class as password_util_cls at init time. Your class will be instantiated once as part of app initialization.

New in version 4.0.0.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) –

__init__(app)

Instantiate class.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) – The Flask application being initialized.

normalize(password)

Given an input password - return a normalized version (using Python’s unicodedata.normalize()). Must be called in app context and uses SECURITY_PASSWORD_NORMALIZE_FORM config variable.

Parameters:

password (str) –

Return type:

str

validate(password, is_register, **kwargs)

Password validation. Called in app/request context.

If is_register is True then kwargs will be the contents of the register form. If is_register is False, then there is a single kwarg “user” which has the current user data model.

The password is first normalized then validated. Return value is a tuple ([msgs], normalized_password)

Parameters:
  • password (str) –

  • is_register (bool) –

  • kwargs (Any) –

Return type:

tuple[list | None, str]

class flask_security.MfRecoveryCodesUtil(app)

Handle creation, checking, encrypting and decrypting recovery codes. Since these are rarely used - keep them encrypted until needed - yes if someone gets access to memory they can find the key…

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) –

__init__(app)
Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) –

class flask_security.UsernameUtil(app)

Utility class providing methods for validating and normalizing usernames.

To provide your own implementation, pass in the class as username_util_cls at init time. Your class will be instantiated once as part of app initialization.

New in version 4.1.0.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) –

__init__(app)

Instantiate class.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) – The Flask application being initialized.

check_username(username)

Given a username - check for allowable character categories. This is broken out so applications can easily override this method only.

By default allow letters and numbers (using unicodedata.category).

Returns None if allowed, error message if not allowed.

Parameters:

username (str) –

Return type:

str | None

normalize(username)

Given an input username - return a clean (using bleach) and normalized (using Python’s unicodedata.normalize()) version. Must be called in app context and uses SECURITY_USERNAME_NORMALIZE_FORM config variable.

Parameters:

username (str) –

Return type:

str

validate(username)

Username validation. Called in app/request context.

The username is first validated then normalized. Input is restricted/validated via a call to check_username. Return value is a tuple (msg, normalized_username). msg will be None if properly validated.

It is important that None be returned if data is an empty string since otherwise DBs will complain since the field is unique/nullable.

Parameters:

username (str) –

Return type:

tuple[str | None, str | None]

class flask_security.WebauthnUtil(app)

Utility class allowing an application to fine-tune various Relying Party attributes.

To provide your own implementation, pass in the class as webauthn_util_cls at init time. Your class will be instantiated once as part of app initialization.

New in version 5.0.0.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) –

__init__(app)

Instantiate class.

Parameters:

app (flask.Flask) – The Flask application being initialized.

authentication_options(user, usage, existing_options)
Parameters:
  • user (User | None) – User object - could be used to configure on a per-user basis. However, this can be null.

  • usage (list[str]) – Either “first” or “secondary” (webauthn is being used as a second factor for authentication)

  • existing_options (dict[str, t.Any]) – Currently filled in authentication options.

Return type:

dict[str, t.Any]

Return a dict that will be sent in to

py-webauthn generate_authentication_options

authenticator_selection(user, usage)
Parameters:
  • user (User) – User object - could be used to configure on a per-user basis.

  • usage (str) – Either “first” or “secondary” (webauthn is being used as a second factor for authentication

Return type:

AuthenticatorSelectionCriteria

Part of the registration ceremony is providing information about what kind of authenticators the app is interested in. See: https://www.w3.org/TR/2021/REC-webauthn-2-20210408/#dictionary-authenticatorSelection

The main options are:
  • whether you want a ResidentKey (discoverable)

  • Attachment - platform or cross-platform

  • Does the key have to provide user-verification

Note::

If the key isn’t resident then it isn’t discoverable which means that the user won’t be able to use that key unless they identify themselves (use the key as a second factor OR type in their identity). If they are forced to type in their identity PRIOR to being authenticated, then there is the possibility that the app will leak username information.

Parameters:
Return type:

AuthenticatorSelectionCriteria

registration_options(user, usage, existing_options)
Parameters:
  • user (User) – User object - could be used to configure on a per-user basis.

  • usage (str) – Either “first” or “secondary” (webauthn is being used as a second factor for authentication)

  • existing_options (dict[str, t.Any]) – Currently filled in registration options.

Return type:

dict[str, t.Any]

Return a dict that will be sent in to py-webauthn generate_registration_options

user_verification(user, usage)

As part of signin - do we want/need user verification. This is called from /wan-signin and /wan-verify

Parameters:
  • user (User | None) – User object - could be used to configure on a per-user basis. Note that this may not be set on initial wan-signin.

  • usage (list[str]) – List of “first”, “secondary” (webauthn is being used as a second factor for authentication). Note that in the verify/reauthentication case this list is derived from SECURITY_WAN_ALLOW_AS_VERIFY

Return type:

UserVerificationRequirement

class flask_security.Totp(secrets, issuer)

Encapsulate usage of Passlib TOTP functionality.

Flask-Security doesn’t implement any replay-attack protection out of the box as suggested by: https://passlib.readthedocs.io/en/stable/narr/totp-tutorial.html#match-verify

Subclass this and implement the get/set last_counter methods. Your subclass can be registered at Flask-Security creation/initialization time.

New in version 3.4.0.

Parameters:
generate_qrcode(username, totp)
Generate QRcode

Using username, totp, generate the actual QRcode image. This method can be overridden to fine-tune how the image is created - such as size, color etc.

It must return a string suitable for use in an <img src=xx> tag.

New in version 4.0.0.

Parameters:
  • username (str) –

  • totp (str) –

Return type:

str

get_last_counter(user)

Implement this to fetch stored last_counter from cache.

Parameters:

user (User) – User model

Returns:

last_counter as stored in set_last_counter()

Return type:

TotpMatch | None

set_last_counter(user, tmatch)

Implement this to cache last_counter.

Parameters:
  • user (User) – User model

  • tmatch (TotpMatch) – a TotpMatch as returned from totp.verify()

Return type:

None

Forms

class flask_security.ChangePasswordForm(*args, **kwargs)

The default change password form

class flask_security.ConfirmRegisterForm(*args, **kwargs)

This form is used for registering when ‘confirmable’ is set. The only difference between this and the other RegisterForm is that this one doesn’t require re-typing in the password…

We want to support OWASP best-practice around mitigating user enumeration. To that end we run through the entire validation regardless - this allows us to still return important bad-password messages. In the case of an existing email or username - we set form.existing_xx so that the view can decide how to match responses (e.g. json responses always return 200).

class flask_security.ForgotPasswordForm(*args, **kwargs)

The default forgot password form

class flask_security.LoginForm(*args, **kwargs)

The default login form

class flask_security.MfRecoveryCodesForm(*args, **kwargs)

Generate and fetch recovery codes

class flask_security.MfRecoveryForm(*args, **kwargs)

Accept recovery code for second factor authentication

class flask_security.PasswordlessLoginForm(*args, **kwargs)

The passwordless login form

class flask_security.RegisterForm(*args, **kwargs)
class flask_security.ResetPasswordForm(*args, **kwargs)

The default reset password form

class flask_security.SendConfirmationForm(*args, **kwargs)

The default send confirmation form

class flask_security.TwoFactorVerifyCodeForm(*args, **kwargs)

The Two-factor token validation form

class flask_security.TwoFactorSetupForm(*args, **kwargs)

The Two-factor token validation form

class flask_security.TwoFactorSelectForm(*args, **kwargs)
class flask_security.TwoFactorRescueForm(*args, **kwargs)

The Two-factor Rescue validation form

class flask_security.UnifiedSigninForm(*args, **kwargs)

A unified login form For either identity/password or request and enter code.

class flask_security.UnifiedSigninSetupForm(*args, **kwargs)

Setup form

class flask_security.UnifiedSigninSetupValidateForm(*args, **kwargs)

The unified sign in setup validation form

class flask_security.UnifiedVerifyForm(*args, **kwargs)

Verify authentication. This is for freshness ‘reauthentication’ required.

class flask_security.VerifyForm(*args, **kwargs)

The verify authentication form

class flask_security.WebAuthnRegisterForm(*args, **kwargs)
class flask_security.WebAuthnRegisterResponseForm(*args, **kwargs)
class flask_security.WebAuthnSigninForm(*args, **kwargs)
class flask_security.WebAuthnSigninResponseForm(*args, **kwargs)

This form is used both for signin (primary/first or secondary) and verify.

class flask_security.WebAuthnDeleteForm(*args, **kwargs)
class flask_security.WebAuthnVerifyForm(*args, **kwargs)
class flask_security.Form(*args, **kwargs)
class flask_security.FormInfo(instantiator=<function _default_form_instantiator>, cls=None)

Each view form has a name - assigned by Flask-Security. As part of every request, the form is instantiated using (usually) request.form or request.json. The default instantiator simply uses the class constructor - however applications can provide their OWN instantiator which can do pretty much anything as long as it returns an instantiated form. The ‘cls’ argument is optional since the instantiator COULD be form specific.

The instantiator callable will always be called from a flask request context and receive the following arguments:

(name, form_cls_name (optional), **kwargs)

kwargs will always have formdata and often will have meta. All kwargs must be passed to the underlying form constructor.

See flask_security.Security.set_form_info()

New in version 5.1.0.

Parameters:

Signals

See the Flask documentation on signals for information on how to use these signals in your code. All Flask-Security signals are compatible with Blinker’s async implementation. See Blinker async

Tip

Remember to add **extra_args to your signature so that if we add additional parameters in the future your code doesn’t break.

See the documentation for the signals provided by the Flask-Login and Flask-Principal extensions. In addition to those signals, Flask-Security sends the following signals.

user_authenticated

Sent when a user successfully authenticates. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user, and authn_via arguments. The authn_via argument specifies how the user authenticated - it will be a list with possible values of password, sms, authenticator, email, confirm, reset, register.

New in version 3.4.0.

user_unauthenticated

Sent when a user fails to authenticate. It is sent from the default_unauthn_handler. It is passed the app (which is the sender).

New in version 5.4.0.

user_registered

Sent when a user registers on the site. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user, confirm_token (deprecated), confirmation_token and form_data arguments. form_data is a dictionary representation of registration form’s content received with the registration request.

user_not_registered

Sent when a user attempts to register, but is already registered. This is ONLY sent when SECURITY_RETURN_GENERIC_RESPONSES is enabled. It is passed the following arguments:

  • user - The existing user model

  • existing_email - True if attempting to register an existing email

  • existing_username- True if attempting to register an existing username

  • form_data - the entire contents of the posted request form

New in version 5.0.0.

user_confirmed

Sent when a user is confirmed. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed a user argument.

confirm_instructions_sent

Sent when a user requests confirmation instructions. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed a user and confirmation_token arguments.

login_instructions_sent

Sent when passwordless login is used and user logs in. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user and login_token arguments.

password_reset

Sent when a user completes a password reset. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed a user argument.

password_changed

Sent when a user completes a password change. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed a user argument.

reset_password_instructions_sent

Sent when a user requests a password reset. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user, token (deprecated), and reset_token arguments.

tf_code_confirmed

Sent when a user performs two-factor authentication login on the site. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user and method arguments.

New in version 3.3.0.

tf_profile_changed

Sent when two-factor is used and user logs in. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user and method arguments.

New in version 3.3.0.

tf_disabled

Sent when two-factor is disabled. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user argument.

New in version 3.3.0.

tf_security_token_sent

Sent when a two factor security/access code is sent. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user, method, login_token and token (deprecated) arguments.

New in version 3.3.0.

us_security_token_sent

Sent when a unified sign in access code is sent. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user, method, token (deprecated), login_token, phone_number, and send_magic_link arguments.

New in version 3.4.0.

us_profile_changed

Sent when user completes changing their unified sign in profile. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user, methods, and delete arguments. delete will be set to True if the user removed a sign in option.

New in version 3.4.0.

Changed in version 5.0.0: Added delete argument and changed method to methods which is now a list.

wan_registered

Sent when a WebAuthn credential was successfully created. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user and name arguments.

New in version 5.0.0.

wan_deleted

Sent when a WebAuthn credential was deleted. In addition to the app (which is the sender), it is passed user and name arguments.

New in version 5.0.0.